The working principle of a laser cutting machine is to release energy when the laser beam is irradiated on the surface of the workpiece to melt and evaporate, in order to achieve the purpose of cutting and carving. The laser cutting machine has the characteristics of material saving, smooth cut, high accuracy, and fast processing speed. The laser cutting machine has the following eight main parameters.
1. Feed rate: The continuous cutting time of the laser beam at the current point is inversely proportional to the movement speed of the cutting head on the material plane. The higher the speed, the shorter the duration, and vice versa. Sometimes some geometric parameters can also affect the speed, such as when the time is similar, if the cutting space of the component is too small, it can lead to heat accumulation of the material.
2. Cutting head height: The laser beam is focused below the nozzle through a lens, with the highest power density at the focal point. Therefore, the height of the cutting head from the cutting surface not only affects the plane focusing area, but also affects the energy density at the current point.
3. Basic photocurrent: directly determines the power of the laser beam. When the ratio is 100%, the laser beam has the highest power.
4. Laser pulse frequency: In addition to continuous laser beams, pulsed laser beams are also used, which are laser beams that continuously switch quickly. Adjust its power by adjusting its duty cycle to achieve some special functions.
5. Laser pulse duty cycle: The percentage of time that a pulse laser lasts in an open state during a cycle is proportional to the laser power. When the duty cycle is 100%, that is, fully open within one cycle, it is continuous laser.
6. Laser power supply: The laser power supply is divided into several parts to provide energy, and some are individually turned off when needed to reduce laser power.
7. Laser power modulation: In order to match different cutting speeds, specialized equipment is used to adjust the laser power at any time. For example, when the cutting direction is changed, the translation speed of the cutting head will be lower than that of linear cutting. If there is no real-time adjustment of power in this section, excessive energy release in the current section will affect the cutting quality; So it is necessary to use a modulator to reduce laser power to meet the needs of corner cutting.
8. Auxiliary gas: Ejected from the nozzle to protect the cutting head from smoke and dust, in order to improve cutting quality. Although this factor is not related to laser power or the duration of the current point cutting, it is still an important factor for metal cutting; There are several different gases to choose from to meet the cutting needs of different materials.